Marxism came out of the 19th century by the sociologist Karl Marx. Marxism is a socio-economic perspective of the world. It is regarded as a macro perspective. A macro perspective believes individuals are governed by a greater force and that they are not in control of their own actions or future to some extent). What is this greater force you may ask? Simply the way the world works, operates and functions. This will be explored later. Marxism is a conflict theory - this means that it believes society is in constant conflict with something else. The whole theory revolves around two groups of people.
Superstructure and base.
Marx's philosophy was based on the idea that the economy was behind the creation of society, creating its norms, values and ideas. Marx divided this concept into two main parts:
1) Economic base (blue). This consists of two elements:
a) Means of production - factories, labour, raw materials.
b) Relations of production - private/ shared ownership and economic monopolisation.
2) The superstructure (red) - This consists of social facts e.g. family, education, the media etc. All of these are determined and controlled by the base structure.