Socialisation allows us to adapt to societies, as well as our own, norms values etc. Learning these never stops from when we are born to when we die. Socialisation is also the process by which we acquire the beliefs, habits and skills necessary to play an appropriate role in society.
How are we socialised?
Socialisation can be the consequence of numerous agencies, discussed in more depth later, however, all of these can be divided up into two categories. Primary socialisation: How to talk properly, how to eat, how to behave with your parent/guardian etc. Basically, how to function at the most basic level. Secondary socialisation: How to reflect societies norms and values and enhance your role within that society. E.g. standing up for a pregnant lady on the bus, not calling your manager a swear word etc.
Agencies of sociasliation.
An agency of socialisation is basically an institution or approach which socialises us. You need to be able to list, as examples, a few agencies and discuss how they socialise an individual.
Giddens (1989) suggests that socialisation is not a kind of cultural programming in which the child absorbs passively the influences with which he or she comes into contact. Even the most recent new born infant has needs and demands that affect the behaviour of those responsible for its care. Giddens suggests that the socialisation process is not passive but rather a two-way process in which both parents and children are involved.